logo #WorldHydrogen2022 8–10 March 2022

Hydrogen Europe – Unlocking the Potential for Clean Mobility: the revision of CO2 emission standards for cars & vans

Published July 2021 by Hydrogen Europe 

Executive Summary

Hydrogen Europe considers the revision of the Regulation setting CO₂ emission performance standards for new passenger cars and new light commercial vehicles[1] to be a key legislative initiative to help the EU deliver upon its 2030 climate targets and to reinforce its global leadership in zero-emission vehicles, particularly hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.

Consequently, we call on the EU institutions to maintain the level of 2025 targets while strengthening the 2030 targets, provided the enabling framework conditions are in place, and a holistic approach is taken. As the Regulation covers different vehicle types, these differences should be reflected when it comes to targets, with dedicated sets for each vehicle category; in this respect, the key role of fuel cell electric vehicles for both segments should be acknowledged.

Low carbon and renewable fuels have a central role to play, and this should be considered in the text by including a provision giving an option for manufacturers to take part in a voluntary crediting mechanism for renewable fuels of non-biological origin, which would be linked to an obligation to invest into zero-emission vehicles.
Another key element of the proposal should target the overall system and resource efficiency: its role should be carefully analysed and recognised in the proposal. The uptake of low and zero-emission vehicles will be severely hampered if not supported by an efficient system.

Lastly, Hydrogen Europe calls for the allocation of emission premiums to upskilling, reskilling and hydrogen refuelling station deployment. In addition, Europe needs technicians and automotive personnel to have all necessary skills and competencies to work on hydrogen vehicles since they have fundamental differences from internal combustion engine vehicles.

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Hydrogen Europe – How Hydrogen Can Help Decarbonise the Maritime Sector

Published June 2021 by Hydrogen Europe

Hydrogen Europe is the organisation representing the interests of the European hydrogen industry. It fully adheres to the European Union’s target of climate neutrality by 2050 and supports the European Commission’s objectives to develop and integrate more renewable energy sources into the European energy mix.

In December 2015 in Paris, a global climate agreement was reached at the UN Climate Change Conference (COP 21). The Paris Agreement is seen as a historic and landmark instrument in climate action. However, the agreement is lacking emphasis on international maritime transport and the role that this sector will need to play in contributing to the decarbonisation of the global economy and in striving for a clean planet for all.

Hydrogen, hydrogen-based fuels (such as ammonia) and hydrogen technologies offer tremendous potential for the maritime sector and, if properly harnessed, can significantly contribute to the decarbonisation and also mitigate the air pollution of the worldwide fleet. Hydrogen Europe will be the catalyst in this process the decarbonisation and also mitigate the air pollution of the worldwide fleet. Hydrogen Europe will be the catalyst in this process.

The pathway towards hydrogen and hydrogen-based fuels for the maritime sector does not come without technological and commercial challenges let alone regulatory barriers.

This paper aims at showcasing the importance of an ambitious maritime EU-policy to address those challenges and it contains policy requests on EU initiatives such as the necessity to include the maritime sector in the European Emission Trading System as well as setting targets on the demand of hydrogen and hydrogen-based fuels and explain why even that is not enough. The current state of International Maritime Organisation (IMO) discussions on the decarbonisation strategy are progressing slowly but there is no time.

Why should the EU take the lead? The IMO discussions on the decarbonisation strategy are progressing but this must be accelerated in order to meet the European Green Deal objectives of carbon neutrality by 2050. Measures to improve the energy-efficiency of the ship by 2030 will not be sufficient, we must act now. If the EU aims to reduce emissions overall by 55% in 2030 compared to 1990, a shift from fossil fuels to zero-carbon fuels for shipping will be required. As the lifetime of ships is high, the introduction of zero-emission vessels must start now.

In its communication on a sustainable and smart mobility strategy (SSMS), the European Commission has acknowledged the importance of taking the lead in decarbonising the maritime sector very clearly, laying down the priorities in the transport sector for the next ten years. This includes a target of zero emission marine vessels market-ready by 2030, boosting the use of renewable fuels in the maritime sector as well as an emphasis on the creation of zero-emission ports.

In the face of inevitable climate change, Martin Stopford and eminent maritime economist describes the coming decade as “the 4th industrial revolution at sea”. It is in the EU’s best interests to manage this revolution effectively over the decades to come.

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Hydrogen Europe, ENTSOG, GIE – How to Transport & Store Hydrogen – Facts & Figures

Published in May 2021

ENTSOG, GIE and Hydrogen Europe have joined forces on a paper that answers a number of fundamental questions about gaseous and liquid hydrogen transport and storage. This paper provides an objective and informative analysis on key concepts, terminology and facts and figures from different public sources.

1» WHAT ARE THE PATHWAYS THAT ALLOW FOR THE INTEGRATION OF HYDROGEN IN THE EXISTING GAS INFRASTRUCTURE AND MARKET?

There are three pathways for the integration of hydrogen into the gas system: the injection of hydrogen and its blending with natural gas in the existing gas infrastructure, the development of a dedicated hydrogen network through conversion of the existing gas infrastructure or via the construction of new hydrogen infrastructure and finally via methanation, consisting in capturing CO2, combined with hydrogen in order to produce e-methane, injected in the gas network. Those models are complementary and depend on the production technology, the concerned zone or even the temporality of the projects. Today the gas infrastructure can accommodate any form of low carbon hydrogen, independently from the technology used for its production, such as electrolysis, gasification of biomass, steam methane reforming combined with capture of CO2 or steam methane reforming of biomethane, electrolysis of molten salt.

2» WHAT IS HYDROGEN BLENDING?

Hydrogen blending is the injection in the existing gas infrastructure of a share of hydrogen into the overall volume of gaseous energy carriers. With exceptions related to injected shares and areas of application, the respective hydrogen blending levels may not substantially affect the capacity of the gas infrastructure [1].

3» WHAT IS HYDROGEN DEBLENDING?

Hydrogen deblending is the reverse process of hydrogen blending and allows to extract pure hydrogen for dedicated uses (e.g. hydrogen fuel cells, feedstock) as well as reasonably hydrogen-free natural gas. For hydrogen deblending, different designs of membrane plants and combinations with other technologies are used (e. g. polymer membrane, carbon membrane, metal membranes, glass/ceramic membranes, membrane-PSA) to separate hydrogen from gaseous energy carriers. There are several important factors to be considered when choosing the most suitable technology, such as permeability, selectivity, stability of the membrane material, effects of discontinuous operation on the operation, design of the membrane plant, effects of different hydrogen concentration on the separation process. Hydrogen separation effectiveness depends on the hydrogen concentration in methane. It is also important to ensure proper management of the separated hydrogen. However, the technology is currently under development and additional R&D analysis is needed.

4» HOW MUCH HYDROGEN CAN BE BLENDED INTO THE EXISTING GAS PIPELINES?

The maximum allowable hydrogen concentration depends mainly on pressure fluctuations, structure and existing defects. However, widespread knowledge to date indicates that, for some grid sections, certain blending percentages (e.g. 2%–10% in volumetric terms) are technically feasible with few adaptations in some Member States. Although additional tests are needed some operators consider 20% the upper bound due in particular to the requirements for downstream users to be adapted beyond this point2 (Figure 1). As regards to technical regulation, blending of hydrogen is explicitly recognized by a few Member States.

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